Extremes on the ends of the pH scale that can result in severe corrosion and chemical attack of the pump body, gears, bushings, and elastomers. Pump construction will ultimately be driven by the specific liquid being handled and the construction that offers the greatest chemical resistance.
Various liquids designed to enhance or change the properties of the bulk liquid such as fuels, greases, and oils. These additive liquids include antioxidants, rust inhibitors, anti-wear agents and viscosity modifiers.
Adhesives are a group of substances, such as cement, glue, mucilage, and paste that are capable of holding materials together by surface attachment. Adhesives are made from many different basic materials, among them dextrin, latex, silicones, liquid rubber, resin, sodium silicate, and starch.
Chemical compatibility ranges greatly based on the alcohol and the subsidiary branch chains attached to it, resulting in potential chemical attack of the pump body, gears, bushings, and elastomers. Pump construction will ultimately be driven by the specific alcohol being handled and the construction that offers the greatest chemical resistance.
Ammonia (Refrigerant R-717) is a very thin liquid that is a gas at ambient temperature and pressure. It is typically kept at elevated pressure to keep it in liquid form. Ammonia is used as the refrigerant in cooling systems.
Clean asphalt contains no fillers and is an oil based liquid. It is primarily used in paving roads, waterproofing liquids, and paints. Typically they are handled at elevated temperatures to reduce the viscosity of the asphalt. The pump needs a source of heat like jacketing or electric heat to prevent the product from solidifying in the pump.
Emulsions are asphalt suspended in a mixture with water or other liquids. This is done to ease the application of the asphalt. Uses would be crack filling, coating roadways, or waterproofing. These emulsions are shear sensitive and must be handled with care.
A natural intermediate byproduct of kraft pulping, black liquor soap is the rosin and fatty acid content that floats to the top as black liquor is left to settle. It is skimmed off and can be used as a raw material for tall oil production. Black liquor soap can be somewhat abrasive and range in viscosity from 22 to 5500 cP, depending on the temperature it is handled at.
Sodium hydroxide is soluble in water, alcohol and glycerol. It is used in the manufacture of other chemicals, rayon and film, petroleum refining, pulp and paper, making of aluminum, refining vegetable oil, in detergents, soaps, textile processing, in reclaiming rubber and as an alkali in foods. The viscosity ranges from water-thin to 40 cP depending on concentration and temperature.
Cheese is a food product produced from curds of milk. Typically based on cows or sheep milk but can be from a wide range of milk sources and used to produce both hard and soft cheese with many regional variations.
Cacao beans are roasted, ground up, and mixed with oils to get a semi-liquid which is the beginning point in the making of chocolate. Early stage chocolate is known as bitter chocolate. Add sugar and it is known as sweet chocolate. Add milk for milk chocolate. If the chocolate has been thinned down it is chocolate liquor. It can be diluted with fats like palm nut or coconut oils.
Collagen is a structural protein found in skin and other connective tissues. These can be used in a wide range of applications from cosmetic surgical treatments to food produces such as sausage skins in the meat processing industry.
Hot cooking oils are used primarily for deep fat frying of vegetables and meats. Some cooking oils or fats will become solid at room temperature, however the pumps are typically located close enough to the supply that it keeps the pump warm. The viscosity is typically water-thin at normal operating temperatures.
Creams are typically for personal use by consumers for cosmetic and surface medical treatments. Physical properties and chemistry can vary greatly depending on the cream base and added substituents. Some creams will be petroleum based like Petroleum Grease, while others may be emulsions suspended in water. They typically are shear-thinning mixtures.
This is a very generic term for unrefined oils typically being recovered from the ground. Some crude oil may contain particulates from the oil well or recovery method. They are considered to be flammable liquids. Crude oils are later refined and used for everything from making plastics to gasoline.
Diesel is distilled from petroleum and is typically used in heavy equipment as fuel. While it is thin diesel is somewhat lubricating. It is typically handled in a bulk transfer application or on back-up generator skids.
Liquid based colorants are used in the chemical, petroleum, and industrial processes as a color indicator for identifying batch processes and what stage they are at in production. These dyes can be corrosive, such as "Red Dye" commonly used in Diesel Fuel production. When handling concentrated or pure dye, construction materials with high level corrosion resistance may be needed.
This group of oils may consist of olive, palm, soybean, canola, pumpkin seed, corn, sunflower, safflower, peanut, grape seed, sesame, and rice bran or a blend of these oils that is typically referred to as vegetable oil.
Cold ethanol extraction is a common method for removing oils from plant material. Due to its polarity, ethanol is chilled to subzero temperatures to avoid extracting additional, less desirable water-soluble molecules. Pumps in this application may be used for circulating or transporting solvents at temperatures as low as -100F.
Filled asphalts contain particulate used in the liquids’ end applications. Examples of this would be roofing materials and hot mix plants. Typically they are handled at elevated temperatures to reduce the viscosity of the asphalt mixture. The pump needs a source of heat like jacketing or electric heat to prevent the product from solidifying in the pump.
A clear, colorless, syrupy liquid used in a variety of applications involving lacquers, resins, printing inks, adhesives, waxes, and pharmaceuticals. It is often blended with water and used as a coolant and anti-freezing agent.
Commonly referred to as lubricating, automotive, or bearing grease. Generally mixtures of a mineral oil with one or more metallic soaps; the most common are those of sodium, calcium, barium, aluminum, lead, lithium, potassium and zinc. The texture of grease may be smooth, buttery, ropy, fibrous, spongy or rubbery and have a variety of viscosities.
Heat transfer liquids, heat transfer oil (HTO) or hot oil, are generally made from one of the following: mineral oil, diphenyls, modified terphenyls or polyalkalene glycols. Heat transfer liquids are used for transferring heat from a source to a point of use such as dies, presses, cooking vessels, processing equipment, etc. Most are handled at temperatures up to 600°F.
High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS) is usually followed by the percentage of fructose in the liquid, ranging from 42 to 55%. It is most commonly used in soft drinks, jams, and jellies as a sweetener. Temperature regulation is relevant because discoloration of the liquid could occur at elevated temperatures.
Hot Melt adhesives are thermoplastic polymers that soften (become less viscous) when heated. Applied by a local system that melts the adhesive and adjusts pump speed to match the speed of the converting machine.
Inks for flexible packaging are shear sensitive liquids that can have a variety of solvents, waxes, surfactants, and semi-solid resin particles, and pigment load concentrations that bring with them abrasive wear and chemical compatibility concerns.
Also known as TDI, MDI, or diisocyanate. Isocyanate is used as a hardening or curing agent in polyurethane foams, industrial coatings, elastomers, inks, and resins. It is extremely sensitive to moisture in the air and hydrocarbons making air-tight seal options extremely critical.
Jam, jelly, compote, and conserves consist of fruits that are cooked with sugar, sometimes with the addition of pectin and used as a foodstuff. Typically produced to a spreadable consistency with the inclusion of some fruit pieces.
Latex is the generic term for emulsions of polymer in water that is stable. These emulsions can be natural or be synthetically made. This liquid is typically very shear sensitive and requires care when pumping.
Lecithin is a mixture of triglycerides, fatty acids, and carbohydrates that typically ranges in viscosity up to 5000 SSU, but may be more viscous depending on make-up and temperature. It is typically derived from soybean oil but may also be obtained from egg yolks, corn, or other vegetable seeds.
Liquefied gases are under high tank or system (inlet) pressure and lower temperatures to prevent them from vaporizing under atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature conditions. This includes Butane, Propane, Liquid Nitrogen, Methane, etc. The high system pressure keeps the gases in a liquid state and helps propel the liquid through the system under low differential pressure.
Recycled animal fats and vegetable oils are used in the production of animal feeds for many reasons including the acceleration of growth rates, improved taste, providing essential fatty acids and to act as a binder for producing feed pellets. Typical products include oils derived from corn, soybeans, peanuts as well as animal fats.
.Lotions are typically for personal use by consumers for cosmetic purposes. Most lotions are used for softening or moisturizing skin. Some lotions are used to deliver medicine to unbroken skin as well. Typically these are emulsions with oil suspended in water and shear-thinning.
Machinery lubrication pumps are used in everything from small backup generators to naval ships. Lube oils, as the name implies, are the liquids used to lubricate rotating and reciprocating machinery. Lube oils may be handled at higher pressures to ensure their penetration of the equipment.
Massecuite is the mixture of raw sugar crystals and molasses, made by seeding supersaturated cane or beet juice, prior to the removal of the molasses by centrifuging. It contains a high concentration of abrasive sugar crystals.
Molasses is defined as the syrupy mother liquor left after sucrose has been removed from the cane juice by concentration. If only one crop of crystals had been removed, it is called First Molasses. If the second crop has been removed, the product is termed Second Molasses, and so on. When no more cane sugar can be extracted it is called Final Molasses or Black Strap Molasses.
Molten Sulfur is a difficult to pump liquid due to the very narrow temperature range that it can be handled. Molten Sulfur is typically solid up to 240°F, and then re-solidifies again around 370°F. The suggested handling range is 270°F - 310°F, where the viscosity is 6 - 9 cP. The pump needs a source of heat like jacketing or electric heat to prevent the product from solidifying in the pump.
Orange juice is the juice squeezed from the fruit of the orange tree and can be of many varieties such as blood orange, navel, Valencia, clementine and tangerine. Can be smooth or with the inclusion of fruit cells. Often produced and then concentrated to aid transport and storage then rehydrated at the point of use.
Peanut butter is made from mixing ground up peanuts with various additives and fillers. From the mixer, peanut butter is pumped through a deaerator and/or heat exchanger to remove entrained air and drop the temperature prior to being pumped to the jar filling machines.
Is the liquid that remains after the distillation of coal tar or refining of petroleum. It is used in paints, roofing and paving materials. It is also used in the production of anodes for aluminum smelting and graphite electrodes in steel production.
Alcohols having many hydroxyl radicals are called polyols. Many companies market polyols under their own trade names. Product viscosity varies greatly depending on the specific polyol, but can be as thick as 40,000 cP. Polyols are often blended with isocyanates, so pumps handing polyols are often requested to be built using isocyanate compatible lubricants.
Polyurethane foam is produced when a polyether is treated with a isocyanate in the presence of water and a catalyst, as well as fillers, dispersing and emulsifying agents, etc. The water reacts with the isocyanate group to cause cross linking and curing, and also produces carbon dioxide which causes foaming. May also be known as Isocyanate liquid.
Poly Vinyl Acetate, or PVAC, is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, transparent, thermoplastic solid. It is used in latex water paints, in hot melt and other types of adhesives, for coating and finishing fabrics, as a component of lacquers, inks and in caulking compounds and chewing gum. PVAC is insoluble in water, oils and fats, but soluble in alcohols, esters, benzene and ketones.
Quaternary ammonium compounds, also known as quats, are used as disinfectants in restaurants, hospitals and homes. They are also used as surfactants, fabric softeners, and antistatic agents in products like shampoo.
Reclaimed Asphalt is typically a dirty or filled asphalt containing a bitumen blend with solids that could be limestone or rubber based. These solids result in very high viscosities and abrasive nature, resulting in the need for extra clearances, low run speeds, and the inclusion of hardened parts.
Resins are high viscosity liquids with potentially shear sensitive (thinning) components, and made up of solvents, waxes, surfactants, and semi-solid resin particles all with various chemical compatibility concerns. These resins can be used in polyurethanes, epoxies and other adhesives. In some cases, resins contain pigments that bring with them abrasive wear concerns.
Rubber cement, also referred to as contact cement covers a wide range of materials; some may be emulsions sensitive to shearing; others may be flammable because of the solvent carrier; others may be water solutions, which are used in a variety of adhesive-type applications. Due to the variance in material and solvent used, the viscosity varies greatly.
Kettle soap, soap stock, soap skimmings, and liquid soap are a mixture of sodium salts of various fatty acids of natural oils and fats. Common soap is largely a mixture of the sodium salts of palmitic, stearic and oleic acids. Rosin soaps for laundry purposes are made by adding a soap made from rosin or rosin itself to an ordinary soap
The wide range of viscosity of various solvents plays a key role in determining the best pump for handling the application. Pump construction will ultimately be driven by the specific liquid being handled and the construction that offers the greatest chemical resistance and is the most viscosity appropriate.
Starch is derived from corn, arrowroot or potatoes. It is shear sensitive (thickens) and viscosity varies from a few centipoise to over 20,000 cP depending on the type of starch, concentration in the liquid, and temperature.
Starch based adhesives are used in the paper and corrugating industries. The raw starch is derived from a variety of plants such as corn, wheat, and potatoes. They tend to be shear sensitive (thickening) and are mixed in equipment commonly referred to as a starch kitchen.
Surfactants reduce the surface tension of the liquid in which they are dissolved. Commonly used in cleaning products to emulsify oils and hold dirt or other particulates in suspension. Also used in chemical processing like ethanol production.
A natural intermediate byproduct of kraft pulping, tall oil soap is the rosin and fatty acid content of black liquor that is skimmed off and used as a raw material for tall oil production. Tall oil soap can be somewhat abrasive and range in viscosity from 22 to 5500 cP, depending on the temperature it is handled at.
Triethylene Glycol is used as a liquid desiccant to remove the water from natural gas. The hot glycol is injected into the gas pipeline at high pressures to dehydrate of the natural gas coming out of the ground.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular infectious disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins.
Waxes can be natural secretions of plants or animals, such as beeswax, or by-products of petroleum refining. Wax is commonly used in the paper and boxboard industries to make products such as cartons and paper packaging moisture resistant. Wax can also help prevent food products from sticking to paper packaging.